Silvopasture (Latin, silva forest) is the practice of combining forestry and grazing of domesticated animals in a mutually beneficial way. Advantages of a properly managed silvopasture operation are enhanced soil protection and soil enhancement, and increased long-term income due to the synergies of function-stacking in simultaneous production of tree crops and grazing animals.
Perhaps the oldest agroforestry system used in the temperate regions of the world, silvopastoral systems are characterized by integrating trees with forage and livestock production. Combined with regenerative grazing practices such as rotational grazing, silvopasture designs have the potential to increase agricultural production in the long term.
Silvopastoral systems are definitely the most prominent agroforestry practice in the United States, particularly in the southeast.
Animals use the trees for shelter from sun, snow and wind.
J. Russell Smith's excellent 1929 book Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture is a profound vision for a productive silvopastoral agricultural system.