Biodynamic farming

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Biodynamic agriculture is a farming principle originally developed by Rudolf Steiner that emphasizes "a holistic understanding of agricultural processes". Such as the principle of organism, not organization. One of the first sustainable agriculture movements.

Richard Harwood, former C.S. Mott Chair for Sustainable Agriculture at Michigan State University, calls the biodynamic movement the "first organized and well-defined movement of growers and philosophies [in sustainable agriculture] (Harwood 1990; p.6).</ref> it treats soil fertility, plant growth, and livestock care as ecologically interrelated tasks,<ref name=OrgAg/><ref name=Duram2010>Template:Cite book</ref><ref>Template:Cite book</ref> emphasizing spiritual and mystical perspectives. Proponents of biodynamic agriculture, including Steiner, have characterized it as "spiritual science" as part of the larger anthroposophy movement.<ref name=OrgAg2/><ref name=PaullJ>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref name=Paull2011>Paull, John (2011) "Biodynamic Agriculture: The Journey from Koberwitz to the World, 1924-1938", Journal of Organic Systems, 2011, 6(1):27-41.</ref>

Biodynamics has much in common with other organic approaches – it emphasizes the use of manures and composts and excludes the use of artificial chemicals on soil and plants. Methods unique to the biodynamic approach include its treatment of animals, crops, and soil as a single system; an emphasis from its beginnings on local production and distribution systems; its use of traditional and development of new local breeds and varieties; and the use of an astrological sowing and planting calendar. Biodynamic agriculture uses various herbal and mineral additives for compost additives and field sprays; these are sometimes prepared by controversial methods, such as burying ground quartz stuffed into the horn of a cow, which are said to harvest "cosmic forces in the soil", that are more akin to sympathetic magic than agronomy.Template:Citation needed